Session 1 :Human Vaccines - Infectious & Non Infectious Diseases
The first course of rabies treatment was administered under the supervision of Louis Pasteur more than a century ago. Since then, rabies vaccines have always been among the first to benefit from progress in production and control. As regards vaccines for human use, around 1955 there was a transition from vaccines prepared from animal nerve tissue to embryonated eggs and very soon afterwards, around 1960, to adaptation of rabies virus to cultures of human diploid cells. The development of this vaccine, which remains the reference vaccine in comparative studies of immunogenicity, took long years. The late 1970s and the 1980s saw the development of a plethora of vaccines prepared on various cellular substrates such as primary explant cells of hamster, dog or fetal calf kidney, fibroblasts of chicken embryo, or diploid cells from rhesus monkey fetal lung, and finally cells from continuous lines (Vero cells).
Session 2 :Vaccine Research & Development
WHO's Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR) facilitates vaccine research and development (R&D) against pathogens with significant disease and economic burden with a particular focus on low and middle income countries. It focuses on facilitation of early stage R&D in disease areas with no available vaccines or sub-optimal vaccines; research to optimize public health impact where existing vaccines are underutilized; research to aid introduction decision-making and post-licensure assessments of risk/benefit; research to improve monitoring and evaluation of vaccines in use in immunization programmes. IVR activities align with the strategic objective 6 of the Global Vaccine Action Plan country, regional and global research and development innovations maximize the benefits of immunization”, and with the fifth goal of the decade of vaccines develop and introduce new and improved vaccines and technologies.
Session 3 :HIV Vaccines
An HIV vaccine may have the purpose of protecting individuals who do not have HIV from being infected with the virus, a preventative vaccine, or treating an HIV-infected person, a therapeutic vaccine. There are two approaches to an HIV vaccine: an active vaccination approach in which a vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV; and a passive vaccination approach in which preformed antibodies against HIV are administered. Currently, there is no licensed HIV vaccine on the market but multiple research projects are trying to find an effective vaccine. There is evidence from humans that a vaccine may be possible. Some, but certainly not all, HIV-infected individuals naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies which keep the virus suppressed and these people remain asymptomatic for decades. Potential broadly neutralizing antibodies have been cloned in the laboratory monoclonal antibodies and are being tested in passive vaccination clinical trials.
Session 4 :Cancer Vaccines
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Some of the vaccines are autologous being prepared from samples taken from the patient and are specific to that patient. Some researchers claim that cancerous cells routinely arise and are destroyed by the immune system; and that tumors form when the immune system fails to destroy them. Some types of cancer, such as cervical cancer and some liver cancers are caused by viruses called oncoviruses. Traditional vaccines against those viruses, such as HPV vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine, prevent those types of cancer. These vaccines are not further discussed in this article. Other cancers are to some extent caused by bacterial infections as stomach cancer and Helicobacter pylori.
Session 5 :Vaccine Adjuvants & Delivery Technologies
An adjuvant is an ingredient of a vaccine that helps create a stronger immune response in the patient's body. In other words, adjuvants help vaccines work better. Some vaccines made from weakened or dead germs contain naturally occurring adjuvants and help the body produce a strong protective immune response. However, most vaccines developed today include just small components of germs such as their proteins, rather than the entire virus or bacteria. These vaccines often must be made with adjuvants to ensure the body produces an immune response strong enough to protect the patient from the germ he or she is being vaccinated against.
Session 6 :Veterinary & Poultry Vaccines
Vaccination plays an important part in the health management of the poultry flock. There are numerous diseases that are prevented by vaccinating the birds against them. A vaccine helps to prevent a particular disease by triggering or boosting the bird’s immune system to produce antibodies that in turn fight the invading causal organisms. A natural invasion that actually causes the disease will have the same result as the bird will produce antibodies that fights the current invasion as well as to prevent future invasions by the same causal organisms. Unfortunately birds that become diseased usually become unthrifty, non-productive or even die. An infection caused by natural invasion will be uncontrolled and therefore has the possibility of causing severe damage. However vaccination provides a way of controlling the result with minimal harm to the birds.
Session 7 :Geriatric Immunization
All adults need immunizations to help them prevent getting and spreading serious diseases that could result in poor health, missed work, medical bills, and not being able to care for family. All adults need a seasonal flu or influenza vaccine every year. Flu vaccine is especially important for people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, and older adults. Every adult should get the Tdap vaccine once if they did not receive it as an adolescent to protect against pertussis or whooping cough, and then a Td or tetanus, diphtheria booster shot every 10 years. In addition, women should get the Tdap vaccine each time they are pregnant, preferably at 27 through 36 weeks.
Session 8 :Vaccine Safety and Efficacy
For the past two centuries, vaccines have provided a safe and effective means of preventing a number of infectious diseases. Although the safety of some vaccines has been questioned in recent years, the currently available vaccines are more than a millionfold safer than the diseases they are designed to prevent. Vaccines should always be used in conjunction with other public health interventions. One important intervention is education because the general public can be led to believe that vaccines are unsafe and not needed by misinformation readily available electronically and in print. New vaccines are being studied for topical and intravaginal use. In addition, new systems are being developed for more efficient production of vaccines, especially for influenza.
Session 9 :Production and Research of Vaccines
Vaccines not only afford the best protection against infectious disease but can serve as strong deterrence factors as well. From a bioterrorist perspective, vaccine-resistant agents are more difficult to engineer than drug-resistant agents. But the potential market has been too small and uncertain to encourage the vaccine industry to make large investments in research, development, and manufacturing of new products. This is alarming considering the eight to ten years often needed to develop a new vaccine, compared to only two to three years to develop a new bioweapon. Even among the four major vaccine manufacturers, there is insufficient production capacity. It was suggested that in order to move animal and clinical testing forward, incentives need to be established to reduce the current challenges of vaccine development; vaccine production priorities need to be set and a central office or leader authorized to declare top priorities.
Session 10 :Vaccines for Pregnant Women and Neonates
All pregnant women need to get vaccinated against the flu and whooping cough during each pregnancy. Vaccines can help protect both you and your baby from vaccine-preventable diseases. During pregnancy, vaccinated mothers pass on infection-fighting proteins called antibodies to their babies. Antibodies provide some immunity protection against certain diseases during their first few months of life, when your baby is still too young to get vaccinated. It also helps provide important protection for you throughout your pregnancy. To protect yourself and your baby, it's important to understand which vaccines you may need before, during, and after your pregnancy.
Session 11 :Modern Technologies in Vaccine Discovery & Development
Vaccine discovery and development has become increasingly more challenging. The crowded vaccine schedules, escalating costs of full vaccination programs particularly in cost-sensitive Gavi-eligible countries, and platforms for maternal immunization and Public Health Emergencies of International Concern have all contributed to an urgent need for new or improved approaches to the discovery, development and delivery of vaccines, particularly those that are cheaper, simpler to manufacture, and more convenient to use. The comprehensive survey of emerging tools from the most upstream antigen vaccine discovery, to active and passive immunization platforms, clinical trials, and manufacturing, formulation and delivery, the desired outcome of which is to provide a forum for an integrated discussion on how best to meet the increasing challenges faced by the scientific community's efforts in new vaccine development.
Session 12 :Recombinant Vaccines
A recombinant vaccine is a vaccine produced through recombinant DNA technology. This involves inserting the DNA encoding an antigen such as a bacterial surface protein that stimulates an immune response into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the antigen in these cells and then purifying it from them. Live herpesvirus-vectored vaccines are widely used in veterinary medicine to protect against many infectious diseases. In poultry, three strains of herpesvirus vaccines are used against Marek's disease (MD). However, of these, only the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully developed and used as a recombinant vaccine vector to induce protection against other avian viral diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) or avian influenza (AI).
Session 13 :Synthetic Vaccines
A synthetic vaccine is a vaccine consisting mainly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens. They are usually considered to be safer than vaccines from bacterial cultures. Creating vaccines synthetically has the ability to increase the speed of production. This is especially important in the event of a pandemic. The world's first synthetic vaccine was created in 1982 from diphtheria toxin by Louis Chedid, a scientist from the Pasteur Institute and Michael Sela from the Weizmann Institute. In 1986, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo created the SPf66, the first version of a synthetic vaccine for Malaria. Phase I data of UB-311, a synthetic peptide vaccine targeting amyloid beta, showed that the drug was able to generate antibodies to specific amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils with no decrease in antibody levels in patients of advanced age. Results from the Phase II trial are expected in the second half of 2018.
Session 14 :Hepatitis Vaccines
Hepatitis B is a common disease in the United States. The good news is that the hepatitis B vaccine gives more than 90% protection to people who get the vaccine.There are 2 vaccines that protect against hepatitis B. They are the hepatitis B vaccine protects infants, children and adults from hepatitis B. And the hepatitis B combination vaccine protects adults from both hepatitis B and hepatitis A. Because of the vaccine, cases of acute or short-term hepatitis B have decreased by a lot in the United States. But chronic long-term hepatitis B is still common upto 2.2 million people in the United States has it. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious liver problems and even death. Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.
Session 15 :Travel and Edible Vaccines
Travel vaccines are recommended to provide protection against diseases endemic to the country of origin or of destination. They are intended to protect travelers and to prevent disease spread within and between countries. There is no single vaccination schedule that fits all travelers. Each schedule must be individualized according to the travelers' previous immunizations, health status and risk factors, the countries to be visited, the type and duration of travel, and the amount of time available before departure. Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socio-cultural readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins.
Session 16 :Managing and Storage of Vaccines
Proper vaccine storage and handling practices play a very important role in protecting individuals and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccine management, including proper storage and handling procedures, is the basis on which good immunization practices are built. Vaccines must be stored properly from the time they are manufactured until they are administered. Proper maintenance of vaccines during transport is known as the cold chain. A proper cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain that includes all equipment and procedures used in the transport and storage and handling of vaccines from the time of manufacturer to administration of the vaccine. By following a few simple steps and implementing best storage and handling practices, providers can ensure that patients will get the full benefit of vaccines they receive.